Authors: Nix WA, Zirwes R, Bangert V, Kaiser RP, Schilling M, Hostalek U, Obeid R.
To investigate the vitamin B status, with particular focus on vitamin B6, in adults with and without incipient nephropathy secondary to type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Plasma and/or urine concentrations of vitamins B₆, B₁, B₁₂, related vitamers and biomarkers (including total homocysteine, methylmalonic acid) were measured in 120 adults with type 2 diabetes (including 46 patients with microalbuminuria) and 52 non-diabetic control subjects.
Plasma concentrations of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) were significantly lower in patients with type 2 diabetes than in control subjects (median: 22.7 nmol/L, diabetes with microalbuminuria; 26.8 nmol/L, diabetes without microalbuminuria; 39.5 nmol/L, non-diabetic control; p<0.0001). The prevalence of low PLP (<30 nmol/L) was 63%, 58%, and 25% in the diabetes groups with and without microalbuminuria and the control group, respectively. Plasma levels of pyridoxine and pyridoxal were also lower (p<0.0001), but levels of pyridoxamine, pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate, and pyridoxic acid were higher in both groups with diabetes compared to the control group (p<0.001). Thiamine deficiency was highly prevalent in all groups, whereas low vitamin B₁₂ and elevated methylmalonic acid were rare. Increased levels of C-reactive protein and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were observed in the groups with diabetes (p<0.05, versus healthy control).
Deficiency of vitamin B₆ (PLP, pyridoxine, pyridoxal) and vitamin B₁ (thiamine) was prevalent in type 2 diabetes. Incipient nephropathy was associated with more pronounced alterations in vitamin B₆ metabolism and stronger indications of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation.